Phonetics is the study of how human beings produce and perceive speech sounds. Phonetics is often defined with respect to phonology. Both disciplines are concerned with the sound medium of language, and it is not useful to draw a hard and fast line between them. The centre of gravity of the two fields is, however, different. In general, phonology is concerned with the pattering of sounds in a language (and in language in general), and is thus comparable to areas of linguistics such as syntax and morphology which deal with structural elements of language at other levels. --BAAP.


Phonetics - Phonology - English Pronunciation - Official Website - BenjaminMadeira
Phonetics, Linguistics - Photo: illustration

University studies | Benjamin Madeira —


Keywords: english pronunciation, accent reduction, pronunciation, esl, efl, esl pronunciation, american accent, british accent, learn english online, learn english pronunciation on line, english pronunciation exercises, english practice, learn american accent, accent, phonetics, phonetiks, american, english exercises, learn british accent, accent reduction course, pronunciation software, pronunciation guide, aprenda ingles, pronunciacion ingles, anglais, foreign accent syndrome.


The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics. In studying articulation, phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of different physiological structures.



Generally, articulatory phonetics is concerned with the transformation of aerodynamic energy into acoustic energy. Aerodynamic energy refers to the airflow through the vocal tract. Its potential form is air pressure; its kinetic form is the actual dynamic airflow. Acoustic energy is variation in the air pressure that can be represented as sound waves, which are then perceived by the human auditory system as sound.


The two classes of sounds



Sounds of all languages fall under two categories: Consonants and Vowels.

Consonants

All consonants may be classified as either voiced or voiceless. In articulating a voiced consonant, the vocal cords are vibrating. (The vibration may easily be felt by gripping the larynx--the "Adam's apple"--between the fingers and the thumb while articulating the consonant.) In articulating an unvoiced consonant, the vocal cords are not vibrating.

Present-Day English has several consonant pairs that are articulated alike except that one is voiced and the other is unvoiced. Some examples are the phoneme spelled b in bat (voiced) and the phoneme spelled p in pat (unvoiced); the phoneme spelled d in dab (voiced) and the phoneme spelled t in tab (unvoiced); the phoneme spelled th in this (voiced) and the phoneme spelled th in thistle (unvoiced).

Consonants may also be classified according to the manner of articulation and the point of articulation: that is, how and where the flow of air is stopped or impeded when the consonant is articulated. Thus, we get the following systems of classification.


Vowels

Nasal vowel / Oral vowel

Previous Vowel / Later Vowel

Rounded vowel / Unrounded vowel

Open vowel / Closed vowel


Place or point of articulation


One of the differences between consonants and vowels is that when we articulate vowels, the airstream flows out freely along the middle of the tongue. When we articulate consonants on the other hand, we make some kind of obstruction in the speech organs, which prevents the air from flowing out freely. These obstructions may be made with for example some part of the tongue touching or approaching the roof of the mouth, or with the lips touching each other or the upper teeth, or by making an obstruction between the vocal chords. The parts of the speech organs which are involved in articulating consonants (tip of the tongue, lips, palate, teeth, vocal chords etc.) are called articulators.

Alveopalatal consonants


Alveopalatals are consonants for which the flow of air is stopped or impeded by creating a block or a small aperture between the tongue and the region of the hard palate just behind the alveolar ridge. Alveopalatals may be voiced (vocal cords vibrating during the articulation of the consonant) or voiceless (vocal cords not vibrating during the articulation of the consonant). Here is a list of the alveopalatals in Present-Day English.

1. /c/ (the phoneme spelled ch in chip): voiceless alveopalatal affricate.


2. /j/ (the phoneme spelled g in gyp): voiced alveopalatal affricate.


3. /s/ (the phoneme spelled sh in shore): voiceless alveopalatal fricative.


4. /z/ (the phoneme spelled z in azure): voiced alveopalatal fricative.


5. /j/ (the phoneme spelled y in yard): (voiced) alveopalatal semivowel.



Phonetics - Alveopalatal consonants - English Pronunciation - Official Website - BenjaminMadeira
The parts of the human vocal apparatus
that are relevant to the description of English phonemes






Did you like this?

Comentario » Comments »»» Blogger Disqus

 
Top - Subir