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The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics. In studying articulation, phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of different physiological structures.



Generally, articulatory phonetics is concerned with the transformation of aerodynamic energy into acoustic energy. Aerodynamic energy refers to the airflow through the vocal tract. Its potential form is air pressure; its kinetic form is the actual dynamic airflow. Acoustic energy is variation in the air pressure that can be represented as sound waves, which are then perceived by the human auditory system as sound.


The two classes of sounds



Sounds of all languages fall under two categories: Consonants and Vowels.

Consonants

All consonants may be classified as either voiced or voiceless. In articulating a voiced consonant, the vocal cords are vibrating. (The vibration may easily be felt by gripping the larynx--the "Adam's apple"--between the fingers and the thumb while articulating the consonant.) In articulating an unvoiced consonant, the vocal cords are not vibrating.

Present-Day English has several consonant pairs that are articulated alike except that one is voiced and the other is unvoiced. Some examples are the phoneme spelled b in bat (voiced) and the phoneme spelled p in pat (unvoiced); the phoneme spelled d in dab (voiced) and the phoneme spelled t in tab (unvoiced); the phoneme spelled th in this (voiced) and the phoneme spelled th in thistle (unvoiced).

Consonants may also be classified according to the manner of articulation and the point of articulation: that is, how and where the flow of air is stopped or impeded when the consonant is articulated. Thus, we get the following systems of classification.



Place of articulation


One of the differences between consonants and vowels is that when we articulate vowels, the airstream flows out freely along the middle of the tongue. When we articulate consonants on the other hand, we make some kind of obstruction in the speech organs, which prevents the air from flowing out freely. These obstructions may be made with for example some part of the tongue touching or approaching the roof of the mouth, or with thelips touching each other or the upper teeth, or by making an obstruction between the vocal chords. The parts of the speech organs which are involved in articulating consonants (tip of the tongue, lips, palate, teeth, vocal chords etc.) are called articulators.

Bilabial consonants



Labiodental consonants



Interdental consonants


Alveolar consonants



Palatal consonants



Alveopalatal consonants



Velar consonants



Manner of articulation


Manners of articulation describe the kind of obstruction that takes place in articulation of the consonant in question.

Stops / Plosives



Affricates



Fricatives



Nasals



Laterals



Retroflex



Semivowels



English Pronunciation Index / Archive.



MP3 — English Pronunciation Podcast ::



English Pronunciation Podcast - Phonetics, Phonology


  1. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 1, MP3 - 4min
  2. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 2, MP3 - 3min
  3. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 3, MP3 - 2min
  4. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 4, MP3 - 2min
  5. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 5, MP3 - 2min
  6. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 6, MP3 - 2min
  7. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 7, MP3 - 2min
  8. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 8, MP3 - 4min
  9. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 9, MP3 - 2min
  10. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 10, MP3 - 2min
  11. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 11, MP3 - 3min
  12. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 12, MP3 - 3min
  13. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 13, MP3 - 3min
  14. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 14, MP3 - 3min
  15. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 15, MP3 - 6min
  16. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 16, MP3 - 2min
  17. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 17, MP3 - 2min
  18. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 18, MP3 - 3min
  19. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 19, MP3 - 4min
  20. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 20, MP3 - 6min
  21. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 21, MP3 - 4min
  22. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 22, MP3 - 9min
  23. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 23, MP3 - 1min
  24. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 24, MP3 - 4min
  25. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 25, MP3 - 1min
  26. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 26, MP3 - 1min
  27. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 27, MP3 - 2min
  28. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 28, MP3 - 1min
  29. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 29, MP3 - 2min
  30. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 30, MP3 - 3min
  31. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 31, MP3 - 3min
  32. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 32, MP3 - 1min
  33. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 33, MP3 - 2min
  34. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 34, MP3 - 2min
  35. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 35, MP3 - 3min
  36. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 36, MP3 - 4min
  37. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 37, MP3 - 1min
  38. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 38, MP3 - 3min
  39. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 39, MP3 - 3min
  40. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 40, MP3 - 4min
  41. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 41, MP3 - 7min
  42. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 42, MP3 - 4min
  43. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 43, MP3 - 4min
  44. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 44, MP3 - 3min
  45. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 45, MP3 - 3min
  46. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 46, MP3 - 3min
  47. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 47, MP3 - 4min
  48. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 48, MP3 - 1min
  49. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 49, MP3 - 2min
  50. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 50, MP3 - 3min
  51. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 51, MP3 - 4min
  52. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 52, MP3 - 3min
  53. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 53, MP3 - 6min
  54. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 54, MP3 - 3min
  55. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 55, MP3 - 1min
  56. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 56, MP3 - 3min
  57. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 57, MP3 - 1min
  58. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 58, MP3 - 3min
  59. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 59, MP3 - 3min
  60. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 60, MP3 - 4min
  61. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 61, MP3 - 3min
  62. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 62, MP3 - 3min
  63. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 63, MP3 - 3min
  64. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 64, MP3 - 3min
  65. Comprehensive Articulatory Phonetics Exercises - English Pronunciation 65, MP3 - 5min





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