Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #1: Marriage in Souls Belated.
In "Souls Belated" by Edith Wharton, we are first as reader's made to ask the question, "Why don't Lydia and Gannett want to be alone in the train together? Why did neither of them wish to speak to the other" So, who knows what? Lydia as Gannett know what happened in their past; we as readers do not. The reader understands that they have a past, we are just not sure of what it may be and when it began.
How does Lydia describe marriage? It could spoil everything between them. She said it was because she cared too much--yet neither one of them (Lydia or Gannet) believed in the 'sacredness' of marriage. The thought was that no ceremony was needed to bond their love together.
Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #2: Isolation in Souls Belated.
Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #3: Lydia and Rebellion in Souls Belated.
Was Lydia’s rebellion ever an actual rebellion, or was it just a façade that she put up to justify her inner beliefs and desires? What is Edith Wharton saying about social convention in “Souls Belated” and those who try to break it? To what degree do the different views of social conformity depend on their genders, do you think?
Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #4: Relationships Among Women in Souls Belated.
A list of important quotations from Souls Belated.
Her husband did not understand why she wanted to be independent or why she was concerned about equality:
Other men had not understood neither why Lydia wanted to be independent or was concerned with equality:
Lydia had put up with her husband during a long time, but she met a lover who was different: 'you can be satisfied in knowing that if she is with you, it's by her choice, because she wants to be with you, rather than because she feels she needs to be with you- She is simply seeing if you are a guy that can handle her independence. She wants to know that you will encourage it, nurture it, rather than overrun it, or try to take it away from her:
If Lydia had not seen marriage as an obstacle towards emancipation, then she would have been with her husband:
Being in an adulterous-relationship was a sin in Victorian society:
The advantages of being rich and confortable:
Her husband was a 'soul belated' as he never protested against societal norms::
A rural girl, Lydia, has accepted marriage in exchange of confortable rich life ::
She began cuckolding her husband ::
Lydia had to realize that she really wanted to be free ::
She has been set free, but is she really free? ::
Euphemism in the short story: 'the thing,' or divorce ::
Women were macho entities ::
Men married women only to pretend, to save the poor girl, but she saw herself as a self-sufficient woman. Being Gannett the reason of her leaving her husband, she owed him something. He had been "the instrument of her liberation," and owing means being slave to that person ::
Marrying Gannett was not her purpose of being with him ::
Lydia does not see why she should live with Gannett in a place like that hotel : ::
She just want to have Gannett as her lover and that's it : ::
Gannett wants a conventional life, married ::
Her body language shows that she does not want to get married ::
She is explicit about not getting married because it is loosing her freedom ::
She realized that maybe he is not thiking of marriage ::
Is he asking her to be submissive? ::
Lydia thought that Garnett thought she just wanted to be his lover ::
Being divorced, she can't no longer be his lover, but wife ::
Garnett does not understand what freedom means ::
Ralph Garnett thinks she used him only to get divorced ::
Lydia asks Garnett to be in her shoes, to adopt a feminist stance ::
Lydia's opinion about marriage ::
Garnett's views on marriage ::
Lydia's reflection on marriage ::
Leaving marriage is more ethical than pretending ::
Lydia's reflections about conventions ::
Some men are afraid of intelectual independent women ::
Lydia is self-concious that she is smart ::
They are together because they want to, not because they must. Lydia asks him to not mention the word marriage again ::
Garnett accepts to not mention marriage again but without understanding why ::
Gannett seems to be not intelligent and Lydia seems to not think logical ::
Lydia was content because he wanted to, even though he did not understand why ::
It would have been worse to note that he understand her? ironically? ::
At the hotel, Gannett begins to be absent, why? ::
The story could be defined as a journey story in both the literal and metaphorical senses. Why have they been traveling? There is a sense of change not only in the characters, but in the relationship ::
Note that it is Lydia who decides to stay at the hotel where he will write. Why does she do so? ::
Lydia takes the initiative, which was something women were not suppose to do during that time ::
A man who accepts what contemporary society dictates; very different than Gannett ::
Lydia and Gannett behave as if they were husband and wife during the two months they had been at the hotel. Lydia realizes that she has been passive and that she has to be more active ::
Mrs. Cope is getting married with her lover. Marriage is an ideal ::
Lydia is afraid of Lady Susan, or society, finding out that she lives in an adulterous relationship ::
Lydia realizes that she has been hypocrital and is willing to tell the others about her lover, despite the consequences ::
Lydia is tired of been hypocrital ::
Gannett is also tired of been hypocrital ::
Lydia has been only pretending ::
Getting married and pretending again is lying to herself ::
Gannett is ashamed of pretending that she doesn't want to be his wife, not because he is her lover ::
For Lydia, marriage is not the solution, but just being together because they love each other ::
Gannett insinuates that she cannot live alone, that she needs a companion to live happily ::
The only solution is to leave him, the same way she left her husband. The only solution is to leave him, the same way she left her husband. Gannett had promised her not mention the word marriage again, and yet here he was telling her to go to Paris and marry him ::
Gannett, nevertheless, sees Lydia as his equal ::
Gannett feels guilty of being her lover, and voices within him society's point of view: women has to accept marriage as a normal condition ::
Altough Gannett could convince Lydia of not leaving, he didn't ::
Lydia, as the Hebraic myth Lilith, was strong-minded, as Gannett tought of her ::
He is struggling within him, he does not want to let her go, but he won’t stop her either ::
Why does Lydia get off the boat? Does she get off the boat because she loves Gannet? If your response is that she will marry Gannett, where in the text do you find evidence of this? ::
•  APA (2012). “The American Psychological Association.” 6th ed. (Publishing and Editing)
•  Baym, Nina, ed. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Shorter 6 ed. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2003.
•  CHICAGO Citation Style (2010). “The Chicago Citation Style.” 16th ed. (Publishing and Editing)
•  MLA (2009). “Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.” 7th ed. (Publishing and Editing)
•  Wharton, Edith (1899). Souls Belated. (Penguin 60s Classics). Harmondsworth: Penguin..
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LITERARY THEORY, CRITICISM AND PHILOLOGY
Edith Wharton's Works
Wharton, Edith. The Greater Inclination. Short stories. 1899.
_____. The Touchstone. Novella. 1900.
_____. The Valley of Decision. Novel. 1902.
_____. The House of Mirth. Novel. 1905.
_____. The House of Mirth. Ed. Elizabeth Ammons. (Norton Critical Edition). New York: Norton, 1990.
_____. The House of Mirth. Ed. Martha Banta. Oxford: Oxford UP.
_____. The House of Mirth. Ed. Shari Benstock. (Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism). Boston: St.Martin's-Bedford (EU dist. Macmillan), 1994.
_____. La casa de la alegría. Barcelona: Planeta, 1984.
_____. The Age of Innocence. Novel. 1920.
_____. The Age of Innocence. Ed. Candace Waid. (Norton Critical Edition). New York: Norton, 2003.
_____. La edad de la inocencia. Barcelona: Tusquets, 1984.
_____. The Custom of the Country. Novel. 1913.
_____. Las costumbres del país. Barcelona: Destino, 1990.
_____. Ethan Frome. Novel. 1911.
_____. Ethan Frome. Ed. Cynthia Griffin Wolff and Kristin O. Lauer. (Norton Critical Edition). New York: Norton, 1995.
_____. Ethan Frome. Ed. Elaine Showalter. (World's Classics). Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996.
_____. Ethan Frome. Madrid: Montesinos, 1981.
_____. The Mother's Recompense. Novel. 1925.
_____. "The Great American Novel." The Yale Review 16 (1927) 646-56. In American Literature, American Culture. Ed. Gordon Hutner. New York: Oxford UP, 1999. 177-82.*
_____. Hudson River Bracketed. Novel. 1929.
_____. Viaje a Nueva York. Barcelona: Destino, 1989.
_____. "Roman Fever." Short story 1934. In Perrine's Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense. By Thomas R. Arp and Greg Johnson. 8th ed. Boston (MA): Thomson Learning-Heinle & Heinle, 2002. 427-39.*
_____. "Roman Fever." In Reading Narrative Fiction. By Seymour Chatman with Brian Attebery. New York: Macmillan, 1993.*
_____. Fièvre romaine. (GF 818). Paris: Garnier-Flammarion.
_____. "Las fiebres romanas." In Antología del cuento norteamericano. Ed. Richard Ford. Barcelona: Galaxia Gutenberg / Círculo de Lectores, 2002. 225-40.*
_____. "The Refugees." In Women, Men, and the Great War: An Anthology of Stories. Ed. Trudi Tate. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1995. 174-98.*
_____. A Backward Glance. Autobiography. 1934.
_____. A Backward Glance. London: Century, 1987.
_____. Una mirada atrás: Autobiografía. Barcelona: Ediciones B, 1994.
_____. Bunner Sisters.
_____. An Old Maid.
_____. The Writing of Fiction.
_____. Relatos de fantasmas. Madrid: Alianza, 1987.
_____. Cartas a Morton Fullerton. Madrid: Grijalbo-Mondadori, 1993.
_____. Ethan Frome. and Summer. Oxford: Oxford UP.
_____. Italian Backgrounds. New York: Norton, 1990.
_____. The Buccaneers. Penguin audiobook. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1994.
_____. Las bucaneras. Trans. Angela Pérez. Barcelona: Ediciones B, 1996.
_____. Madame de Treymes. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1995.
_____. Cartas a Morton Fullerton (1907-1931). Ed. Marina Premoli. Trans. Esther Gómez. Barcelona: Grijalbo Mondadori, 1995.
_____. Souls Belated. (Penguin 60s Classics). Harmondsworth: Penguin - xml, htm, imp, pdb, rb, pdb, pdf, lrf, prc, lit, zip, epub.
_____. "The Eyes." In American Gothic: An Anthology 1787-1916. Ed. Charles L. Crow. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. 454-65.*
_____. Un hijo en el frente. (Andanzas, 322). Barcelona: Tusquets.
_____. La carta. Stories. Ed. and trans. Teresa Gómez Reus. Barcelona: Clásicos del Bronce, 1999.
_____. Vieux New-York. (GF 614). Paris: Garnier-Flammarion.
_____. Santuario. Madrid: Impedimenta, 2007.
_____. Back to Compostela / Regreso a Compostela. Ed. Patricia Fra López. Santiago de Compostela: U de Santiago de Compostela / Xunta de Galicia, 2011.
Backscheider, Paula R. Reflections on Biography. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1999. (W. J. Bate, A. Motion, E. Wharton).
Bauer, Dale M. Edith Wharton's Brave New Politics. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1994.
Beach, Joseph Warren. "The Well-Made Novel: Sedgwick, Wharton." In Beach, The Twentieth Century Novel. New York: Appleton, 1932. 287-305.
Beer, Janet. (Roehampton Institute, London). Kate Chopin, Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Edith Wharton: Studies in Short Fiction. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997.
Bentley, Nancy. The Ethnography of Manners: Hawthorne, James, Wharton. New York: Cambridge UP, 1995.
Blackall, Jean Frantz. "Edith Wharton's Art of Ellipsis." The Journal of Narrative Technique 17.2 (1987): 145-162.*
Brooks, Van Wyck. "Edith Wharton." In Brooks, The Confident Years: 1885-1915. London: Readers Union/Dent, 1953. 170-82.
Campbell, Donna M. "Edith Wharton and the 'Authoresses': The Critique of Local Color in Wharton's Early Fiction." Studies in American Fiction 22.2 (1994): 169-84.
Carney, Mary. "Wharton's Short Fiction of War: The Politics of 'Coming Home'." In Postmodern Approaches to the Short Story. Ed. Farhat Iftekharrudin et al. Westport (CT) and London: Praeger, 2003.
Caserio, Robert L. "Edith Wharton and the Fiction of Public Commentary." Western Humanities Review 40.3 (Autumn 1986).
Edel, Leon. "Veranos en una época de inocencia en Francia con Edith Wharton." Quimera 120 (1993): 16-23.
Fedorko, Kathy A. Gender and the Gothic in the Fiction of Edith Wharton. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1995.*
Fra López, Patricia, ed. Edith Wharton: Back to Compostela/Regreso a Compostela. Santiago de Compostela: Servicio de Publicaciones e Intercambio Científico, U de Santiago, 2011.
Gómez Reus, Teresa. "The Parody of Sexual Differentiation in Edith Wharton's The Custom of the Country." Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses 21 (1990): 131-40.
_____. "El retrato de una ingenua o la inocencia como conflicto en The Age of Innocence." tvdia Patriciae Shaw oblata. Vol. 1. Oviedo: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Oviedo, 1991. 269-76.
_____. "En busca de la alianza perdida: Interconexiones entre George Eliot y Edith Wharton." XIV Congreso de AEDEAN. Bilbao: Servicio Editorial de la Universidad del País Vasco, 1992. 177-82.
_____. "Revisiting 'The Angel at the Grave': Parallelisms between Edith Wharton and George Eliot." Revista de Estudios Norteamericanos 2 (Sevilla, 1993): 9-18.*
_____. "Paisajes de transición, moradas nebulosas: El cuento de fantasmas femenino en la era del modernismo. Cynthia Asquith and Edith Wharton." Género y Literatura modernista / Gender Trouble in Modernist Literature. Cuadernos de Filología Inglesa 6.1 (1997): 33-58.*
_____. Rev. of Back to Compostela / Regreso a Compostela. By Edith Wharton. Ed. Patricia Fra López. Atlantis 34.2 (Dec. 2012): 215-20.*
Goodwyn, Janet Beer. Edith Wharton: Traveller in the Land of Letters. London: Macmillan, 1990.*
_____. Kate Chopin, Charlotte Perkins Gilman and Edith Wharton: Studies in Short Fiction. London: Macmillan, 1996.
Helmetag, Charles H. "Recreating Edith Wharton's New York in Martin Scorsese's The Age of Innocence." Literature Film Quarterly 26.3 (1998): 162-165
Hochman, Barbara. "The Rewards of Representation: Edith Wharton, Lily Bart and the Writer/Reader Interchange." Novel 24.2: 147-161.*
Hummel, William E. "My 'Dull-Witted Enemy': Symbolic Violence and Abject Maleness in Edith Wharton's Summer. " Studies in American Fiction 24.2 (1996): 215-36.*
Kazin, Alfred. "Dos educaciones: Edith Wharton y Theodore Dreiser." In Kazin, En tierra nativa: Interpretación de medio siglo de literatura norteamericana. Mexico: FCE, 1993. 85-101.*
Lewis, R. W. B. Edith Wharton. New York: Harper, 1975.
Marco, José María. "La autopsia de los fantasmas." (Wharton). Quimera 13.
Margerie, Diane de. "Vampires et proies." (Edith Wharton). Magazine littéraire 288 (1991): 90.*
Martínez Reventós, María Dolores. Rev. of La Carta, by Edith Wharton, ed. Teresa Gómez Reus. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses 13 (2000): 243-46.*
Nettels, Elsa. Language and Gender in American Fiction: Howells, James, Wharton and Cather. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996.
O'Neal, Michael J. "Point of View and Narrative Technique in the Fiction of Edith Wharton." Style 17 (1983): 270-89.
Olin-Ammentorp, Julie. "'Not Precisely War Stories': Edith Wharton's Short Fiction from the Great War." Studies in American Fiction 23.2 (Autumn 1995): 153-72.*
Orr, Elaine Neil. Subject to Negotiation: Reading Feminist Criticism and American Women's Fictions. (Feminist Issues; Practices, Politics, Theory). Charlottesville: UP of Virginia, 1997.*
Ozieblo Rajkowska, Bárbara. "Why A Woman Should Keep Her Feet Firmly on the Ground: Thoughts on Edith Wharton's The House of Mirth." In Actas del X Congreso Nacional AEDEAN. Zaragoza: AEDEAN, 1988. 415-22.
Patterson, Martha H. "Incorporating the New Woman in Wharton's The Custom of the Country." Studies in American Fiction 26.2 (1998): 213-36.*
Preston, Claire. Edith Wharton' s Social Register: Fictions and Contexts. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1999.
Prose, Francine. "Making Up Edith Wharton." New York Review of Books Blog 21 March 2012.*
Saunders, Judith P. "Evolutionary Biological Issues in Edith Wharton's The Children." College Literature 32 (2005): 83-102.
_____. Reading Edith Wharton through a Darwinian Lens: Evolutionary Biological Issues in Her Fiction. Jefferson (NC): McFarland, 2009.
Singley, Carol J. Edith Wharton: Matters of Mind and Spirit. New York: Cambridge UP, 1995.
_____, ed. A Historical Guide to Edith Wharton. (Historical Guides to American Authors). New York: Oxford UP, 2003.
Spinger, Marlene. Edith Wharton and Kate Chopin: A Reference Guide. Boston: Hall, 1976.
Sweeney, Susan Elizabeth. "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: Gazing in Edith Wharton's 'Looking Glass'." Narrative 3.2: 139-160.*
Tintner, Adeline R. "The Narrative Structure of Old New York: Text and Pictures in Edith Wharton's Quartet of Linked Short Stories." The Journal of Narrative Technique 17.1 (1987): 76-82.*
Vermeule, Blakey. "The Furniture of the Mind." Rev. of Reading Edith Wharton through a Darwinian Lens: Evolutionary Biological Isues in Her Fiction, by Judith P. Saunders. The Evolutionary Review 1 (2010): 128-30.*
Wright, Janet Stobbs. "Law, Justice, and Female Revenge in 'Kefol', by Edith Wharton, and Trifles and 'A Jury of Her Peers', by Susan Glaspell." Atlantis 24.1 (June 2002): 225-44.*
The Age of Innocence. Dir. Martin Scorsese. Written by Jay Cocks and Martin Scorsese. Based on Edith Wharton's novel. Cast: Daniel Day-Lewis, Michelle Pfeiffer, Winona Ryder. Music by Elmer Bernstein. Prod. Barbara De Fina. Cappa / De Fina Production. USA: Columbia, 1993.
_____. La Edad de la Inocencia. Spanish DVD. Madrid: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2004.*
The House of Mirth. Dir. Terence Davis, based on the novel by Edith Wharton. Cast: Gillian Anderson, Eric Stoltz, Dan Aykroyd, Terry Kinney, Laura Linney. Prod. des. Don Taylor. UK, France, Germany, USA, 2000.
Fields, Jennie. The Age of Desire. Novel. Viking Penguin, 2012. (Edith Wharton).
_____. The Age of Desire. UK: Ebury Press, 2012. Pbk. Ebury Press, 2013.*