— [http://goo.gl/PEyXt8] Clear and concise introduction to the study of how new languages come into being _______________________John Holm, 2004.
"Holm begins historically, tracing the early history of European pidgins and creoles (touching on Lingua Franca and maritime jargon) and the work of Van Name and Schuchardt in the second half of the nineteenth century. He switches to a more thematic presentation for the modern debates. One of these is between universalists, who argue that all creoles share common features resulting from human language universals (in domains such as adult language learning) and substratists, who stress the influence of substrate languages. Others centre on the "creole continuum", the social continuum of dialects produced when creoles in prolonged contact with their superstrates "decreolize", and the amorphous boundaries between creoles and post- and semi-creoles. And one controversial idea is monogenesis, that all creoles (or all Atlantic creoles) derive from a single source, a Portuguese-based pidgin" (Danny Yee).