— [http://goo.gl/sQdfRK] Is it smart to believe in God?_______________________The relationship of religiosity with education and intelligence.

:: RT: Atheists More Intelligent Than Religious People ▶ http://goo.gl/TvrKZU ◀ The relationship of religiosity with education and intelligence. ↠ #Intelligence #Religiosity #MetaAnalysis #EducationIntelligence #Wealth #CrossCulturalComparisons

According to Blaise Pascal (1670/2008, §83), a rational person should believe in God. If God does not exist, it does not matter whether or not you believe in God. However, if God exists, you can gain eternal life by believing and eternal damnation if you don’t. We cannot know whether God exists, but because there is a certain (possibly low) probability of His existence, it is safer to believe.

Bertrand Russell (1927) disagreed with Pascal’s wager. His (attributed) conclusion was: “Religion is something left over from the infancy of our intelligence; it will fade away as we adopt reason and science as our guidelines.”

A review of scientific studies (Zuckerman: 2013) finds that people who hold a more naturalistic view of the world are generally smarter than those who believe in gods.

In an analysis of 63 studies conducted since 1928, a researcher at the University of Rochester found “a reliable negative relation between intelligence and religiosity” in 53 of the studies. While 10 of the studies showed a positive correlation, only two of them showed a significant link.

Thirty-five of the studies, however, showed a significantly negative correlation between intelligence and religiosity, according to researcher Miron Zuckerman.

Numerous studies have investigated the relationship of formal education with measures of religious belief and religious participation. The most frequent conclusion was that there is a mild negative relationship between education and religion (Johnson, 1997). However, the results depend on the measure of religious belief or involvement, and positive relationships between religion and education have been reported with some regularity.

— "Are religious people less intelligent than atheists? That's the provocative conclusion of a new review of 63 studies of intelligence and religion that span the past century. The meta-analysis showed that in 53 of the studies, conducted between 1928 to 2012, there was an inverse relation between religiosity -- having religious beliefs, or performing religious rituals -- and intelligence. That is, on average, non-believers scored higher than religious people on intelligence tests ::


"The Relation Between Intelligence and Religiosity," by Miron Zuckerman, Jordan Silberman, Judith A. Hall, 2013, PDF ::

The Relation Between Intelligence and Religiosity, PDF - Official Website - BenjaminMadeira

— Religiosity, education and intelligence


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• [1] Johnson, D. C. (1997). Formal education vs. religious belief: Soliciting new evidence with multinomial logit modeling. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36, 231-246

• [2] Pascal, B. (2008). Pensées. New York: Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1670).

• [3] Russell, B. (1927). Why I am not a Christian. London: Watts.

• [4] Zuckerman M. The Relationship Between Intelligence And Religiosity: A Meta-Analysis And Some Proposed Explanations. Personality And Social Psychology Review. 2013. DOI: 10.1177/1088868313497266

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