— [https://goo.gl/x7irDU] The relationship between_______________________the study process, motivation resources, and motivation problems



:: RT: The study process ▶ https://goo.gl/ZpxJ77 ◀ is related to students' learning approaches and styles. Motivation resources and problems determine students' internal, external, and negative motivation. Analyzing the study process and motivation of students yields important indications about the nature of educational systems in higher education. | #StudyProcess #Motivation #ResourcesAndProblems #EducationalSystems #UniversityStudies #StudyNotes




3 Reasons why...


you’re still an intermediate level language learner:

1) Most learners fail to set clear goals and develop healthy habits early on

2) Most learners expect their progress to be linear, while in fact any skill development has diminishing marginal returns

3) Most learners quickly reach a comfort zone in which they have trouble getting out of

Most learners fail to set clear goals and develop healthy habits.

Here are three quick questions for you:

1) Have you set goals regarding your language learning?

2) Have you written them down?

3) Do you have a plan to accomplish them?

If you’ve answered “no” to two or more of these questions, you need to grab a pen and a paper and get to work, now. According to the research of psychologists, neurologists, and other scientists, setting a goal invests ourselves into the target as if we’d already accomplished it. Having goals helps you to track your progress and gives you a sense of direction, which in turns help to increase motivation and reduces your chances of giving up. Research recently conducted by Psychology professor Dr. Gail Matthews shows that people who wrote down their goals, shared this information with a friend, and sent weekly updates to that friend were on average 33% more successful in accomplishing their stated goals than those who merely formulated goals.

Another study undergone by Edwin A. Locke, a scientist at the University of Maryland concludes that “Goal-setting effects are quite robust, typically yielding a success rate of 90%, even including studies that made methodological and/or theoretical errors.”

Most learners expect their progress to be linear.

The improvement of skills works on a so-called “logarithmic scale” as opposed to linear, to put it in fancy terms. What this means is that as you get better, it gets harder and harder to improve. Elite athletes, for example, expend enormous effort to shave seconds off their best times, whereas novice athletes can shave minutes with just a little practice. The same goes for language learning: at the beginning you make quick improvements, since you’re essentially starting from a blank slate. But as you progress, you see diminishing returns proportional to the amount of time and effort that you put in. That’s a totally normal phenomenon, the key is simply to be prepared for it.

As productivity author Scott Young says, “Assuming straight-line growth means overconfidence in long-term progress. As a result, it is easy to hit plateaus if the difficulty isn’t deliberately tuned to break your comfortable rhythm.” More importantly, Scott adds:

"In logarithmic domains, two mindsets are important. In the beginning, high-growth phase, the emphasis needs to be on maintaining long-term habits. Since growth is fast initially, care needs to be taken so that it won’t slide back down once effort is removed. In the later, low-growth phase, the emphasis needs to be on habit breaking. Since low-growth is often caused by calcifying routines, deliberate effort needs to be taken to break out of that comfort zone."

However, there’s a plus side to reaching an intermediate stage in any given language, which shouldn’t be forgotten: once you have cleared the first hurdles of starting literally from scratch, learning becomes easier and so your enjoyment of the language and your mental stamina increase. We can spend much more time on real content, and that time is not restricted to language learning material anymore. We can talk with friends, watch TV and movies, read books. We are not deliberately spending time with the language anymore– we are using and enjoying it. We can spend countless, precious hours with the language. Let me tell you a little personal story: I’ve been learning Catalan for several months now, and at first, even though progress was a lot quicker, it was fairly hard at times to keep my motivation high because I had to go through a lot of language learning material rather than “real content.” But as I got to an intermediate stage, I really started enjoying a lot of material that any other native speaker would enjoy: watching movies and TV series, reading simple books, understanding the lyrics of songs, etc. It felt like I was no longer “studying”, but rather truly embracing and enjoying the language. Even though progress was a lot slower, it almost didn’t matter, because I wasn’t into the game to reach some kind of destination, but rather to enjoy the journey. Before this post gets too long, let’s turn our attention to the “low-growth” phase that swe were talking about a bit earlier, and why most of us fail to pierce through that barrier and instead choose to rest on our laurels by dabbling aimlessly in one or more foreign languages.
Most learners quickly reach a comfort zone.

Is your goal in life to be great, or is it to avoid discomfort? If we didn’t have to work hard to reach success, we wouldn’t appreciate it. Hard is what makes it great. Yet, in the back of our minds, somehow we all want to have it easy. We want to go through the smooth, paved, straight road to success, rather than the unbeaten bush. Let me tell you one thing: the straight, paved road doesn’t exist. Most people reach their “comfort zone” because they start telling themselves that their level is good enough. My career is “good enough.” My level of health is “good enough.” My Spanish is “good enough.” This phase is also sometimes called the “autonomous stage,” when we figure that we’ve gotten as good as we need to get (which doesn’t mean anything if you haven’t set yourself some clear goals in the first place) at the task and we’re basically running on autopilot. During that autonomous stage, we lose conscious control over what we’re doing.

But what separates experts from the rest of us is that they focus on their technique, stay goal-oriented, and get constant and immediate feedback on their performance. Remember that when you want to get good at something, how you spend your time practicing is far more important than the amount of time you spend. In fact, in every domain of expertise that’s been rigorously examined, from chess to violin to basketball, studies have found that the number of years one has been doing something correlates only weakly with level of performance. Constant feedback is also crucial in order to rapidly push through a plateau, for example. Getting feedback is also helpful for learning what you’re doing right, which can give you a boost of confidence and help you realize that you are in fact making progress.. This serves to reinforce a positive mental attitude and helps keep you motivated. Don’t get stuck in the trap of ‘good enough’. There is no such thing as good enough, or even not enough. All that matters is how much you are doing.

The study process has an important role in students' lives. It means that each student uses a unique way to prepare, learn, and remember new and difficult information. It can also be expressed as a students' tendency to search for meaning, memorize information, and succeed based on their intention to learn. Some students try to find and form a meaning, this process can be described as deep learning, while others try to memorize the subject without associating it with other subjects. Still others try to learn with the intention to succeed without finding and forming meanings (Biggs et al., 2001). Studies on this subject show that the study process of students varies according to their intentions (Ekinci, 2009, and Richardson, 2003). The study process may also include variables such as the students' previous education, features of the teaching and learning environments where they study, their epistemological beliefs, critical thinking, and academic success levels and grades (Richardson, 2003, Gijbels and Dochy, 2006 and Ekinci, 2009).

Teachers must have knowledge about the study process of their students. Determining which deep and superficial approaches students use during studying will contribute to creating effective-learning environments. Teachers should have information about the learning approaches which are being used because this will provide an opportunity to take steps toward helping students with superficial-learning approaches to use deep-learning approaches. Educators should use different learning approaches and kinds of feed- back for motivation.

Motivation is a key for success and well-being. Motivation provides self-awareness to individuals by stimulating them (Gelona, 2011). It is also defined as a power that activates, maintains and directs goal-oriented behavior. Motivation is a prerequisite in the learning process and an important factor in academic success (Acat and Köşgeroğlu, 2006). Motivation is said to be related to such results as learning, performance, curiosity, and continuity in education. Therefore, educators should determine the relationships among motivation, academic success and learning and the factors that affect those subjects (Yoshida et al., 2008). Motivation resources and problems include internal, external and negative motivation (Acat and Köşgeroğlu, 2006). They can be classified as intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation according to Ryan and Deci (2000). In intrinsic motivation, the main reason for performing the specific task is the individual's pleasure and satisfaction; whereas in the extrinsic motivation, the individual performs an action to get important results for him/her or for extrinsic award. Motivation problems emerge when individuals are unable to bring about a connection between their situations and the task or activity to be undertaken. This is defined as negative motivation or amotivation. Factors such as experiencing the effort of learning, seeing themselves as inadequate, being under pressure and having a fear of failure cause motivational problems in students. Motivation is one of the preconditions of learning. A student who is not motivated sufficiently is not ready for learning and therefore not using learning approaches (Ryan and Deci, 2000).

When students use their instinct for learning, their academic success level will inevitably increase. However, to promote this desire for learning, information should be given that arouses students' curiosity. Curiosity is only aroused when students consider information necessary. Therefore, educators should provide daily life-related information to students in both clinical environments and classrooms. Educators can motivate students to increase their personal efforts by boosting their eagerness to learn. Thus, educators should use active-learning strategies while giving information to students. For example, it cannot be expected that presenting information using speech which is ordinary, monotone and not self-renewing, generates motivation.

Educators should imbue students with the idea that they are not only students during their undergraduate education, but should remain students throughout their lifetimes.

Ryan and Deci (2000) argue that students' internal motivation should be high in terms of willingness to learn, and that knowing the external motivation resources and transforming them into internal motivation resources are important ways to increase professional motivation.

when the internal motivation and negative motivation increases, the deep-learning approach increases. Also when the external motivation increases, the superficial approach increases. Students who adopt the deep-learning approach aim to understand. Therefore, their internal motivation is higher. These results indicated that the superficial approach is based on external motivation or the fear of failure.

The characteristics of the education system, the learning environment, teachers, and academic and social self-perception are also variables that may affect learning approaches. The sociodemographic characteristics like grade, income and family type affect also deep learning.



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"Motivation through conscious goal setting," by Edwin A. Locke, PDF ::

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Sources / References :

• [1] Acat, M.B., Köşgeroğlu, N., 2006. Motivation's resources and problems scale. Anatol. J. Psychiatry 7, 204–210.

• [2] Biggs, J., Kember, D., Leung, D.Y., 2001. The revised two-factor study process questionnaire: RSPQ-2F. Br. J. Educ. Psychol. 71 (1), 133–149

• [3] Ekinci, N., 2009. Learning approaches of university students. Educ. Sci. 34 (151), 74–88.

• [4] Gelona, J., 2011. Does thinking about motivation boost motivation levels? Coach. Psychol. 7(1),42–48.

• [5] Gijbels, D., Dochy, F., 2006. Students' assessment preferences and approaches to learning: can formative assessment make a difference? Educ. Stud. 32 (4), 401–411.

• [6] Richardson, J.T.E., 2003. Approaches to studying and perceptions of academic quality in a short web based course. Br. J. Educ. Technol. 34 (4), 433–442.

• [7] Ryan, R., Deci, E.L., 2000. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: classic definition and new directions. Contemp. Educ. Psychol. 25, 54–67

• [8] Yoshida, M., et al., 2008. Factors influencing the academic motivation of individual college students. Int. J. Neurosci. 118, 1400–1411.
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