— [https://goo.gl/x7irDU] The relationship between_______________________the study process, motivation resources, and motivation problems
Teachers must have knowledge about the study process of their students. Determining which deep and superficial approaches students use during studying will contribute to creating effective-learning environments. Teachers should have information about the learning approaches which are being used because this will provide an opportunity to take steps toward helping students with superficial-learning approaches to use deep-learning approaches. Educators should use different learning approaches and kinds of feed- back for motivation.
Motivation is a key for success and well-being. Motivation provides self-awareness to individuals by stimulating them (Gelona, 2011). It is also defined as a power that activates, maintains and directs goal-oriented behavior. Motivation is a prerequisite in the learning process and an important factor in academic success (Acat and Köşgeroğlu, 2006). Motivation is said to be related to such results as learning, performance, curiosity, and continuity in education. Therefore, educators should determine the relationships among motivation, academic success and learning and the factors that affect those subjects (Yoshida et al., 2008). Motivation resources and problems include internal, external and negative motivation (Acat and Köşgeroğlu, 2006). They can be classified as intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation according to Ryan and Deci (2000). In intrinsic motivation, the main reason for performing the specific task is the individual's pleasure and satisfaction; whereas in the extrinsic motivation, the individual performs an action to get important results for him/her or for extrinsic award. Motivation problems emerge when individuals are unable to bring about a connection between their situations and the task or activity to be undertaken. This is defined as negative motivation or amotivation. Factors such as experiencing the effort of learning, seeing themselves as inadequate, being under pressure and having a fear of failure cause motivational problems in students. Motivation is one of the preconditions of learning. A student who is not motivated sufficiently is not ready for learning and therefore not using learning approaches (Ryan and Deci, 2000).
When students use their instinct for learning, their academic success level will inevitably increase. However, to promote this desire for learning, information should be given that arouses students' curiosity. Curiosity is only aroused when students consider information necessary. Therefore, educators should provide daily life-related information to students in both clinical environments and classrooms. Educators can motivate students to increase their personal efforts by boosting their eagerness to learn. Thus, educators should use active-learning strategies while giving information to students. For example, it cannot be expected that presenting information using speech which is ordinary, monotone and not self-renewing, generates motivation.
Educators should imbue students with the idea that they are not only students during their undergraduate education, but should remain students throughout their lifetimes.
Ryan and Deci (2000) argue that students' internal motivation should be high in terms of willingness to learn, and that knowing the external motivation resources and transforming them into internal motivation resources are important ways to increase professional motivation.
when the internal motivation and negative motivation increases, the deep-learning approach increases. Also when the external motivation increases, the superficial approach increases. Students who adopt the deep-learning approach aim to understand. Therefore, their internal motivation is higher. These results indicated that the superficial approach is based on external motivation or the fear of failure.
The characteristics of the education system, the learning environment, teachers, and academic and social self-perception are also variables that may affect learning approaches. The sociodemographic characteristics like grade, income and family type affect also deep learning.
"Motivation through conscious goal setting," by Edwin A. Locke, PDF ::
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