Benjamin Madeira — Official Website » education » english-language » in-english » norway » pedagogy » study-notes » university-studies » ESL — «English writing and feedback in upper secondary school in Norway» — [PDF]
:: RT: Giving direct and indirect feedback http://goo.gl/QiaYYS handwritten, conference and electronic | #education #ungdomsskole #LK06 #KUF #Writing #Feedback #pedagogy #English #ESL #EFL #engelsk #ungdomstrinnet #vgs #Norway
The ability to express oneself in writing is one of the five basic skills in the Norwegian LK06 English subject curriculum. However, some Norwegian studies (e.g. Lehmann 1999; Nygaard 2010) indicate that Norwegian students’ writing skills in English are inadequate. How teachers teach English writing is therefore important to investigate, and feedback is one important factor of teaching and developing writing.
It is important to express oneself in writing in today’s society. Many key everyday tasks require of one to know how to read and write (Grabe and Kaplan 1996:3). As the culture in Norway has become more and more Americanized and as the world has become more and more connected, it is also important that Norwegians know how to communicate and, in this case, write in English
Hattie and Timperley’s (2007:104) view is that: ‘To be effective, feedback needs to be clear, purposeful, meaningful, and compatible with students’ prior knowledge and to provide logical connections’.
In primary school, there is no grading involved. The grading of students begins in lower secondary school, where the students each semester are given a report with their grades (continuous assessment), based on assessment during the semester. The grading scale is from 1, which is the failing grade and a grade that shows ‘very low degree of competence in the subject’ to 6, which shows ‘exceptionally high degree of competence in the subject’. In the English subject at lower secon dary school, the students are given two separate grades: one grade based on their written work and one on their oral work. At the end of the students’ last semester in lower secondary school, they receive their final two grades in English.
In upper secondary school the grading scale is the same as in lower secondary school, with a scale from 1 to 6. The difference is that the final grade at the end of the course is no longer two separate grades, but one merged grade based on both the students’ oral and written work. This merging of the two grades into one may be challenging both for teachers and students, because the students’ proficiency may differ in the two areas.
The Norwegian law on education (Forskrift til opplæringslova § 3-1) states that students have the right to both formative and summative assessment. The students have the right to know what the goals are and what the evaluation is based on. In paragraph 3-2 of the law on education, the purposes of assessment are stated. With the use of both formative and summative assessment, the goal is to promote continuous learning and to describe the competence of the student. The evaluation is supposed to provide good feedback and guidance to the student. Formative assessment is meant as a tool in the learning process (§ 3-11), and can be both orally or in writing. The evaluation is meant to increase the student’s development in the subject. The student has the right to at least one conversation per semester with the teacher where the topic is the student’s development in the subject. Student self-assessment is also part of formative assessment.
In Vg1 general programmes and Vg2 vocational programmes in upper secondary school, 20 % of the students get randomly chosen for an exam at the end of the school year. The exam can be either an oral or a written exam, and there are various subject possibilities, for example Norwegian, mathematics or English. The students who are chosen for the English exam, will be given an external grade in the English subject, in addition to the continuous assessment grade. Many students may not be chosen at all. The written exams are made and examined by external examiners, while the oral exams are made locally and examined externally.
Corrective Feedback Preferences: - and Learner Repair among Advanced ESL students ::
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